The components of income before income taxes consist of:

 Year ended December 31,
The Netherlands77,645381,618
Other countries60,11575,419
Income before income taxes137,760457,037

The income tax expense consists of:

 Year ended December 31,
The Netherlands(959)(1,666)
Other countries(2,221)(5,651)
The Netherlands2,812
Other countries891(130)
Income tax (expense) benefit(2,289)(4,635)

The provisions for income taxes as shown in the Consolidated statements of profit or loss differ from the amounts computed by applying the Dutch statutory income tax rate to earnings before taxes. A reconciliation of the provisions for income taxes and the amounts that would be computed using the Dutch statutory income tax rate is set forth as follows:

 Year ended December 31,
Earnings before income taxes from continuing operations137,760100.0%457,037100.0%
Income tax provision based on Dutch statutory income tax rate(34,440)25.0%(114,259)25.0%
Non-deductible expenses(3,044)2.2%(2,998)0.7%
Foreign taxes at a rate other than the Dutch statutory rate(315)0.2%(885)0.2%
Recognition of net operating losses692(0.5%)(2,905)0.6%
Utilization of net operating losses, previously not recognized12,192(8.9%)4,394(1.0%)
Non-taxable income 111,819(8.6%)102,450(22.4%)
Adjustments in respect of prior years' current taxes1,935(1.4%)(161)0.0%
Other 28,872(6.4%)9,729(2.1%)
Tax income / (expense)(2,289)1.7%(4,635)1.0%
  1. Non-taxable income mainly consists of revenues deriving from the share in income of investments and associates which are exempted under the Dutch participation exemption.
  2. Other mainly consists of tax credits, withholding taxes, changes in (enacted) tax laws and revaluation of certain assets.

On June 8, 2009, the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) granted a Pioneer Certificate to ASM Front-end Manufacturing Singapore Pte Ltd (FEMS), a principal subsidiary of the Group, to the effect that profits arising from certain manufacturing activities by FEMS of Front-end equipment will in principle be exempted from tax for a period of 10 years effective from July 1, 2008, subject to fulfillment of certain criteria during the period.

Since 2011 the Dutch statutory tax rate is 25%. Taxation for other jurisdictions is calculated at the rates prevailing in the relevant jurisdictions. The Company’s deferred tax assets and liabilities have been determined in accordance with these statutory income tax rates.

Deferred income taxes consist of the following:

 January 1, 2016Consolidated statement of profit or lossEquityExchange differencesDecember 31, 2016
Deferred tax assets:
Reserves and allowances1,911951282,134
Recognition net operating losses6,545692207,257
Deferred tax assets11,5632,09825813,919
Deferred tax liabilities:
Capitalized development expenses(11,282)(1,207)(581)(13,070)
Deferred tax liabilities(11,332)(1,207)(579)(13,118)
Net deferred income taxes231891(321)801
 January 1, 2017Consolidated statement of profit or lossEquityExchange differencesDecember 31, 2017
Deferred tax assets:
Reserves and allowances2,134(169)366(30)2,301
Recognition net operating losses7,257(2,771)(60)4,426
Deferred tax assets13,9194,369366(538)18,116
Deferred tax liabilities:
Capitalized development expenses(13,070)(1,737)943(13,864)
Deferred tax liabilities(13,118)(1,687)941(13,864)
Net deferred income taxes8012,6823664034,252

Based on tax filings, ASMI and its individual subsidiaries have net operating losses available at December 31, 2017 of €114,341 to reduce future income taxes, mainly in the Netherlands. The Company believes that realization of its net deferred tax assets is dependent on the ability of the Company to generate taxable income in the future. Given the volatile nature of the semiconductor equipment industry, past experience, and the tax jurisdictions where the Company has net operating losses, the Company believes that there is currently sufficient evidence to recognize a deferred tax asset in the amount of €4,426. Deferred tax assets for temporary differences are recognized in the Netherlands, United States, Japan, South Korea and Singapore.

The amounts and expiration dates of the net operating losses for tax purposes are as follows:

EXPIRATION YEARTotal of net operating losses for tax purposesNet operating losses for tax purposes the NetherlandsNet operating losses for tax purposes other countries

The Company has not provided for deferred foreign withholding taxes, if any, on undistributed earnings of its foreign subsidiaries. At December 31, 2017, the undistributed earnings of subsidiaries, subject to withholding taxes, were approximately €39,375. These earnings could become subject to foreign withholding taxes if they were remitted as dividends and/or if the Company should sell its interest in the subsidiaries.

A summary of open tax years by major jurisdiction is as follows:

The Netherlands2014-2017
United States of America1998-2017
South Korea2012-2017

The calculation of the Company’s tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. The Company’s estimate for the potential outcome of any unrecognized tax benefits is highly judgmental. Settlement of unrecognized tax benefits in a manner inconsistent with the Company’s expectations could have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, net earnings and cash flows. The Company is subject to tax audits in its major tax jurisdictions, and local tax authorities may challenge the positions taken by the Company.